A plug valve is a quarter-turn rotary motion manual valve. It uses a cylindrical or tapered plug (plug-shaped disk) to permit or prevent straight-through flow through the body. Plug valves offer a straightway passage through the ports so that fluid can flow through the opening plug with a minimum of turbulence. Flow can be in either direction with fully open or fully closed. The plug valves have been used in many different fluid services. Their performance is good in slurry applications. They are used in bubble-tight services as an on-off stop valve. They are used in air, gaseous & vapor services, Natural gas & oil piping systems, food-processing, nonabrasive slurry, vacuum, pharmaceutical services, and vacuum to high-pressure applications. They are good for on-off valves, diverting services, and moderate throttling. Initially, Plug valves were designed to replace gate valves as plug valves with their quarter-turn action can easily open and close against flow as compared to a gate valve. Plug valves are usually preferred for low-pressure–low-temperature services. Plug valves having body lining with materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) can be used for corrosive chemical services. To handle abrasive and sticky fluids, special designs are required. Plug valves are usually found in sizes up to 18 in (DN 450) and in the lower-pressure classes [ANSI Classes 150 and 300 (PN 16 and 40)]. In this article, we will explore the parts, working principle, types, symbol, advantages, and disadvantages of Plug Valves.

Components of a Plug Valve

Plug valves have all the general parts such as stem, body, disc, and bonnet. It is different from other valves due to its plug disc design.

The Plug Valve Body:

The valve body has all the internal components of the valve. The body connects to the pipes through an end connection.

The Plug valve Stem:

The stem of the valve connects the disc (or disk) to the actuator. This helps in transferring the movement of the actuator to the plug disc thereby opening or closing the plug disc. The plug valve has a little stem that connects to the disc.

The Plug valve disc

The plug disc which is known as the tapered disc acts as a plug hence differentiating the plug valve and the globe valve. Out of all the valves, the plug valve, ball valve, and globe valve have some similarities. The major difference is in the way that how the disc looks like. The Globe valve has a cylindrical disc. The plug valve has a solid metal piece with tapered ends.

Plug Valve Ports

An important feature of a plug valve is its easy adaptation to multiport construction. In general, Multiport plug valves are used widely. They provide various benefits like:
  • Simplified piping and installation
  • More convenient operation than multiple gate valves.
  • Elimination of costly pipe fittings.
Depending upon the number of ports in the plug valve, a multiport plug valve can eliminate four conventional shutoff valves.
Plug valves has the following port patterns:
  1. Round opening: It has round ports in both plug and body.
  2. Rectangular opening: It has rectangular ports of the full bore section.
  3. Standard opening: In this, the area through the valve is less than the area of the standard pipe.
  4. Diamond opening: It has a diamond-shaped opening through the valve.
  5. Multi-port: with three or more pipe connections used for transferring services.
  6. Venturi design: It has reduced area opening with Venturi flow through the body.

Plug Valve Working Principle

Plug valve comprises a body with tapered or parallel seating into which a plug fits. The plug is formed with a port, the position of the port controls the amount of opening through the valve. Ports are known as the openings in the valve body through which fluid can enter or leave. A 90 degree of plug fully opens or closes the fluid flow. Plug valve is not as efficient as ball valves and can only operate fully open or closed. When the opening in the plug is in line with the inlet and outlet ports, flow continues through the valve. A pressure drop occurs through the reduced area of the plug port. However, with a full-area cylindrical plug the pressure drop is minimal. When the hand operator is turned to the full quarter-turn position (90°), the plug’s opening is turned perpendicular to the flow stream, with the edges of the plug rotating through the sealing device (sleeve, lubricant, etc.). When the full quarter-turn rotation is reached, the port is completely perpendicular to the flow stream, creating complete shutoff. In throttling situations, where the plug is placed in a midturn position, the plug takes a double pressure drop. The inlet port’s flow area is reduced by the turning of the plug away from the full-port position, taking a pressure drop at that point. The flow then moves into the full-port area inside the plug, where a pressure recovery takes place, followed by another restriction at the outlet port. Leakage is prevented through the seat by the compression of the plug against the sleeve or other sealing mechanism, while the packing or the collar–diaphragm assembly prevents leakage through the stem. With three-way valve arrangements requiring diverting flow, flow enters at the inlet and moves through the plug, which channels the flow to one of the other two outlets. When the plug is moved 90°, the flow is channeled to the other outlet. At a midway position, flow may be equally diverted to both outlets. With combining flow, flow is directed from two inlets to a single outlet. In order for some of these arrangements to occur, the plug must be turned by half-turn (180°) instead of the typical quarter-turn action. With larger plug-valve sizes [3 in (DN 80) or larger], the torque required for seal breakout may become somewhat excessive. This is caused by the larger contact surface between the plug and sealing device as well as any adverse operating conditions, such as a high process pressure, temperature extreme, corrosion deposits, etc. In this case, hand-levers are typically replaced with geared handwheels, which reduce the torque requirement significantly. The simple plug valve is suitable for low pressure, low-temperature applications and is made in large sizes of 250 to 300 mm. The main limitation of the plug valve is that if wide variations in fluid temperature are involved then differential expansion is inevitable, leading either to undue stiffness of operation or loss of pressure-tightness. The plug may be tapered, parallel and the movement may be plain or lubricated. Another variation is known as the ball plug valve, in which the plug is spherical, having circular ports rotating between circular seats of the concave section.

Types of Plug Valves / Plug Valve Types

In general, there are four types of plug valves. They are:
  1. Lubricated Plug Valves
  2. Non-lubricated Plug Valves
  3. Eccentric Plug Valve, and
  4. Expanding Plug Valve

Lubricated Plug valves:

These valves use lubricants or sealants to ease their operation over a wide range of operating pressure. The lubrication film which is used between plug and body provides a seal and that requires periodic lubricant injection. The sealant must be like that it does not get washed away with the fluid as the fluid can get contaminated and it should be able to withstand line temperature. These lubricants in plug valves are mostly plastic sealants. The use of effective sealant with properties such as proper elasticity, resistance to chemicals, and its ability to form an impervious seal around each body part is essential. The lubricating film also protects the metal surfaces between the plug and body from corrosion. Lubricated plug valves are manufactured in sizes ranging from DN 15 to DN 900. They are used in applications with pressures over 2500 psi.

Non-Lubricated plug valves:

These plug valves are usually used for lower pressure lines. These valves contain an elastomeric body liner or sleeve installed in the body cavity. The plug that is tapered and polished acts like a wedge and tends to press the sleeve against the body. Thus the sleeve reduces the friction between the plug and the body. There are three types of non-lubricated plug valves:
  • Lift-type plug valve
  • Elastomer sleeved plug valve
  • Fully lined plug valve
Lift type plug valve provides a mechanically lifting arrangement to disengage tapered plug from the seating surface to permit easy rotation. The lifting can be achieved by an external lever. The elastomer sleeved plug valve has an elastomer sleeve. It is a TFFE sleeve which surrounds the plug completely. The elastomer sleeve is engaged and locked in place through a metal body. This sleeve has less coefficient of friction and is also self-lubricated. Fully lined plug valve: These types of valves use inexpensive ductile iron or cast iron body. The body and plug of the valve are fully lined with Teflon in a way giving the valve the ability to resist corrosive fluids using iron as the body material.

Eccentric Plug Valve

This type of plug valve design uses a half plug. This design helps in applications requiring a higher seating force with minimal friction from open to closed position. Improved shut off capabilities is the main feature of the the torque seated valves. Eccentric plug valves find application in a wide range of flow control and isolation services. Some of the typical applications of eccentric plug valves are clean and dirty water, sewage, sludge and slurries, air, and other services.

Expanding Plug Valve

Expanding plug valves are complex in design. They use multiple components allowing the plug valve to expand mechanically and give it a true double block and bleed function in one valve. This types of plug valves uses a mechanism that rotates between the open and closed position and protects both seals from the flow path. The body and seals does not contact each other during rotation which avoids wear or abrasion to the seals. For applications not requiring double isolation, expanding plug valves are often used to prevent product contamination.

Plug Valve types by Pattern

Based on patterns, plug valves are categorised as follows:
  • Round opening- Full-bore round ports in both plug and body.
  • Rectangular opening with rectangular shaped ports of full-bore section.
  • Standard opening where the area through the valve is less than the area of the standard pipe.
  • Diamond port where the opening through the valve is diamond shaped.
  • Multiport with three or more pipe connections.
  • Venturi design with reduced area porting and featuring venturi flow through the body.
  • Short plug valves with reduced area ports and reduced face to face dimensions.
  • Vertical plug valves with reduced area seating ports and the plug passages reduced in section to form a throat.

Plug Valve Materials

Plug valves can be produced from a variety of materials; both metallic and plastic. The most common plug valve materials are
  • Steel
  • Stainless Steel
  • Bronze
  • Brass
  • Plastic, etc

Plug Valve Symbol

In P&ID the following plug valve symbol is used for identification and differentiating from other valves.
Fig. 3: Plug Valve Symbol

Pressure Balanced Taper Plug Valves

In larger taper-plug valves, pressure balanced plugs are fitted for very high static pressure applications. With a non-pressure balanced plug, line pressure in an open valve can find its way into the larger end chamber that exists below the plug. This creates a resultant force that tends to push the plug into its tapered seat causing a danger of taper locking. With a pressure balanced plug valve, the live line pressure replaces the sealant pressure by allowing the line to pressurize the small end chamber. A balancing force is generated which prevents the taper lock. The pressure balanced system consists of two holes in the plug connecting chambers at each end of the plug with the line pressure. The hole in the small end of the plug contains a non return valve. This enables sealant pressure to be built up if necessary, while allowing access of the line pressure to the small end chamber. Thus the pressure in the large end chamber always equals the line pressure and the pressure in the small end chamber is always equal to or greater than the line pressure which prevents the taper locking.

Advantages of plug valve

The main advantages of a plug valve are:
  1. It has a simple design and fewer parts
  2. It can be quickly open or close.
  3. This valve offers minimal resistance to flow.
  4. The use of multi-port designs helps in reducing the number of valves needed and permits a change in the flow direction.
  5. It provides a reliable leak-tight service.
  6. They are easy to clean which can be done without removing the body from the piping system.

Disadvantages of plug valve

The limitations or drawbacks of a plug valve are:
  1. As a large amount of friction is required to rotate the plug, which results in greater force to operate these valves.
  2. Actuators are required for larger valves.
  3. These plug valves cost more than ball valves which have a similar design.
  4. Pressure drop is more due to reducing port.

Codes and Standards for Plug Valve Design

The industry codes and standards governing the plug valve design, test and inspection are:
  • ASME B16.10-Face to Face and End to End Valve Dimensions
  • API 599 – Metal Plug Valves – Flanged, Threaded, and Welding Ends
  • API 6D – Specification for Pipeline valves
  • API 598 – Valve Inspection and Testing
  • API 6FA – Fire Test for Valves
  • BS 5353 – Specification for steel plug valves
  • BS 5188 – Specification for cast iron plug valves
  • MSS SP 61 – Pressure testing of steel valves
  • MSS SP 25 – Standard marking system for valves, fittings, flanges & unions
  • MSS SP 78- Gray Iron Plug Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends

Applications of Plug Valves

As stated earlier, Plug valves are suitable for a wide range of services like Air, gas, vapor, slurry, mineral ore, sewage applications, oil piping systems, etc. They are suitable for vacuum as well as high pressure applications even though Plug valves are usually used in low-pressure-low-temperature services. The majority of plug valves are used:
  • for directional flow control, even in moderate vacuum systems.
  • for efficient handling of gas and liquid fuel.
  • for safe handling of extreme temperature flow, such as boiler feed water, condensate, and other such elements.
  • to regulate the flow of liquids containing suspended solids like slurries.

Plug Valve vs Ball Valve

Even though both the Plug valve and the Ball valve are quarter-turn rotary valves, they have few dis-similarities. The major differences between a plug valve and ball valve; i.e, Plug valve vs Ball valve is listed below:
Plug Valve Ball Valve
The disk of a plug valve is cylindrical or conical The disk shape in a ball valve is spherical
The disk size is comparatively larger. Disk size is smaller.
The Sealing surface is larger in plug valves. The Sealing surface is comparatively smaller in ball valves.
More torque requirement for plug valve operation. So, limited application of bigger size plug valves Ball valves provide torque free operation and suitable for all sizes.
Plug valves are heavier as compared to ball valves of the same size and rating. Lighter in weight.
Ease of maintenance. Difficulty maintenance.
Lifespan of plug valves is normally less than ball valves More lifespan.
Cost of plug valve is less. Comparatively expensive as compared to plug valves.
Plug valves are full port, thus allow full flow. Ball valves are available in full and reduced port.
Construction is simple. Ball valve construction is complex.
Plug valves provide better flow control as compared to ball valves.

Extended Reach Drilling in Alaska — Worth the wait

Hear about the historic firsts and challenges of preparing for and moving an innovative 9.5-million-pound rig 2,400 miles from Canada to Alaska and across the North Slope with the work completed in the midst of a pandemic and global economic crisis. The rig is currently planned to start drilling the Fiord West Kuparuk field in June 2021.

Copper is 'the new oil' and could reach $15,000 by 2025 as the world transitions to clean energy, Goldman Sachs says

Copper will be crucial in achieving decarbonization and replacing oil with renewable energy sources, and right now, the market is facing a supply crunch that could boost the price by more than 60% in four years, Goldman Sachs said in a report on Tuesday.


Increased demand and likely low supply are set to drive up the price from the current levels of around $9,000 per ton to $15,000 per ton by 2025, the bank said. 


As a cost-effective metal, copper is majorly important in the process of creating, storing and distributing clean energy from the wind, sun and geothermal sources as it has the physical attributes needed to do so, Goldman’s team of analysts, led by Jeff Currie, said in a report titled “Copper is the new oil”.  


“Discussions of peak oil demand overlook the fact that without a surge in the use of copper and other key metals, the substitution of renewables for oil will not happen,’ the report said. 


Copper will be needed to create the new infrastructure systems required for clean energy to replace oil and gas, however there has not been enough of a focus on this so far according to the report. 


Demand will therefore significantly increase, by up to 900% to 8.7 million tons by 2030, if green technologies are adopted en masse, the bank estimates. Should this process be slower, demand will still surge to 5.4 million tons, or by almost 600%. 


Copper is a key part of sustainable technologies, including electric vehicle batteries and deriving clean energy. As the deadline of the Paris Agreement comes closer, political and economic pushes towards renewable energy and green technology are becoming stronger. 


Just two weeks ago, US President Biden announced an infrastructure package worth $2 trillion, which specifically encourages new sustainable technologies and infrastructure projects.


In its current state however, the copper market is not prepared for the increased demand, Goldman Sachs argue. The copper price has risen by about 80% in the last 12 months, but there hasn’t been a matching rise in output.


“The market is already tight as pandemic stimulus (particularly in China) have supported a resurgence in demand, set against stagnant supply conditions,” Goldman said.


The benchmark three-month copper futures price on the London Metal Exchange was last up 1.4% at around $9,022 a ton, while NYMEX copper futures were up 1.5% at $4.09 a pound. 


As the expansion of mines and creation of new copper production fields takes years, this is likely to lead to shortages of the metal. To prevent a depletion of copper supply within two years, prices must rise now to encourage investment and an expansion in output, Goldman said. 


At present, Goldman Sachs “now estimate a long-term supply gap of 8.2 million tons by 2030, twice the size of the gap that triggered the bull market in copper in the early 2000s”. 


Copper production declined in 2020 due to government restrictions and lockdowns during the Covid-19 pandemic. The world’s largest copper producers, Chile and Peru, were hit especially hard by the pandemic, which could impact supply until 2023, according to commodity analysts S&P Global. Last week, prices spiked following Chilean border closures related to the pandemic. 


Global copper production is however predicted to increase by 5.6% in 2021 after declining by 2.6% in 2020, according to a GlobalData report published in February.

Optimism Returns To Canada's Oil Industry

Optimism is returning to the Canadian oil industry as demand rebounds and production follows, Bloomberg has reported, citing the chief of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers.


“There’s no denying that we’ve been beaten, battered and wounded and industry was faced with some of the biggest challenges last year we’ve ever seen,” Tim McMillan said at the Scotiabank CAPP Energy Symposium. “Our industry still has its best days ahead of it. In fact, over the past year, our industry has rallied and we’re approaching a future with cautious optimism,” the CAPP chief executive added.


Even so, things are beginning to look up for an industry that was struggling to stay profitable even before the pandemic as pipeline shortages kept costs high, and emissions-cutting plans at the federal level threatened long-term profitability.


Many Canadian oil companies will remain focused on cost cuts, Bloomberg reported, citing attendees of the CAPP conference. Shareholder returns will continue to be another priority at the expense of production growth plans.


As part of cost cuts, some of which have been effected through mergers and acquisitions, Canada’s oil industry is shedding jobs. Some 7,300 jobs could be lost this year, the Petroleum Labour Market Information division of Energy Safety Canada said last month.


More than a thousand of these job losses will come from Suncor, which last year cut 600 jobs and said it aimed to cut 1,930 over 18 months. Cenovus is cutting between 1,720 and 2,150 jobs after its takeover of Husky Energy.


According to data from PetroLMI, the oil and gas industry of Alberta has shed a total of 36,000 jobs since a peak hit in December 2013, when it employed 171,000 people. By February 2021, this had fallen to a bit over 134,000. In August 2014, before the oil price crash happened, Canada’s oil industry employed 229,000 people directly. Since then, this has fallen by 26 percent.

Mining Giant Rio Tinto Starts Lithium Production In The U.S.

Rio Tinto (ASX, LON, NYSE: RIO) has kicked off lithium production from waste rock at a plant located at a borates mine it controls in California.


The demonstration facility is the next step in scaling up a breakthrough lithium production process developed at the Boron mine. The method allows Rio Tinto to recover the critical mineral and extract additional value out of waste piles from over 90 years of mining at the operation.


An initial small-scale trial in 2019 successfully proved the process of roasting and leaching waste rock to recover high grades of the metal, vital in the production of batteries that power electric vehicles (EVs) and most high tech electronics.


Rio’s discovery of lithium at Boron was a fluke. The miner was actually testing Boron’s tailings to see whether the presence of gold was significant and found instead traces of lithium at a concentration higher than domestic projects under development.


“We were looking for gold… but we found something better than gold: battery-grade lithium – and the potential to produce a lot of it,” Alex Macdonald, senior engineer at the plant, said on the company’s website.


The project comes at a time when the US is pushing to both encourage the electrification of vehicles and reduce the country’s dependence on China for rare earths, lithium and other minerals needed for EV batteries.


The Biden administration has promised to convert the entire US government fleet — about 640,000 vehicles — to EVs. If the plan is successful, the total number of EVs in the US would increase by more than 50%.


Major leagues
Rio Tinto invested $10 million to build the pilot plant that will be able to produce 10 tonnes a year of lithium-carbonate. By the end of the year, and based on the trial’s results, it will decide whether or not to spend a further $50 million in an industrial-scale plant with annual capacity of 5,000 tonnes a year — enough for around 15,000 Tesla Model S batteries.


The projected production would be roughly the same as the capacity of Albemarle’s Silver Peak mine in Nevada, which is currently the only lithium-carbonate producing asset in the country, according to the US Geological Survey.


Until now, the global miner’s incursion in the lithium market has been mostly limited to its 100%-owned lithium and borates mineral project in Jadar, Serbia. A feasibility study for the proposed mine is expected to be complete by the end of 2021, Rio said.


Rio has produced borates — a group of minerals used in soaps, cosmetics and other consumer goods — for nearly a century in the Mojave Desert, about 195 km (120 miles) north of Los Angeles.


The world’s second-largest miner announced in March an agreement with renewable energy firm Heliogen to explore the deployment of solar technology at the mine.


Rio Tinto is not alone in its quest to produce lithium in California.


Lithium Americas (TSX, NYSE: LAC) is also advancing a major project that received final federal approval in January. The Thacker Pass lithium mine is expected to generate 20,000 tonnes a year of the battery metal, once operational in 2023.


The plant at Boron is one the company’s latest attempts latest to extract valuable materials from waste rock or by-products – including scandium from titanium dioxide production, as well as anhydrite and Alextra from its aluminum operations.

U.S. renewable fuels market could face feedstock deficit

NEW YORK (Reuters) – Demand for feedstocks from renewable fuel producers is expected to surge in the United States in coming years as companies scramble to expand output.


Energy from material that comes from plants and animals, or biomass, currently accounts for roughly 5% of U.S. energy use, slightly more than wind and solar energy. Most U.S. energy use is still based around fossil fuels like petroleum and natural gas.


The United States and other nations are attempting to reduce overall carbon emissions and cut use of high-polluting fossil fuels. Refiners, farmers and agricultural giants are hoping to gain a foothold in fuel supply through production of fuels made from biomass.


But biomass-based fuel production could face limits, as farmers need to harvest more soy and other products to meet growing demand, while companies that collect and process animal fats or spent cooking oil also would need to expand.


Fuels such as biodiesel, renewable diesel and sustainable aviation fuel draw from the same feedstock pool, and analysts have warned there might not be enough lower-carbon intensive feedstock to keep up.


GRAPHIC: Petroleum was the most used energy source in 2020

Demand for soybean oil alone is expected to far outstrip supply by 2023, according to a BMO Capital Markets report from October 2020. The financial services provider estimates an incremental demand of 8 billion pounds of soybean oil by 2023 because of an increase in renewable diesel production.


“The feedstock issue is going to be an enormous problem. Dealing with this matter is going to be hard,” said Robert Campbell, head of oil products research at Energy Aspects.

Renewable energy made up 9.11 quadrillion British thermal units, or 9.8%, of the total energy consumption in 2020, according to Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook. By 2024, that’s expected to grow to 12.23 quadrillion Btu, or 12.5%, of total energy consumption.




Biomass can make fuels such as renewable diesel, biodiesel, sustainable aviation fuel and ethanol.


Renewable diesel production capacity is expected to nearly quintuple to about 2.65 billion gallons (63 million barrels) by 2024, investment bank Goldman Sachs said in October. But that would require an additional 17 billion pounds of feedstock, creating friction between existing biodiesel and food customers, the report said.


The United States produced 533 million gallons of renewable diesel in 2020, according to a Reuters analysis of Environmental Protection Agency data.


U.S. biodiesel production is roughly 110,000 barrels per day, according to the Energy Information Administration’s Annual Energy Outlook, dwarfed by oil refineries, which last year had an operable crude distillation capacity of around 19 million barrels per day, according to EIA.


GRAPHIC: Feedstock used to produce biofuels

While biodiesel requires around 7.5 pounds of feedstock per gallon, renewable diesel needs about 8.5 pounds per gallon, Goldman Sachs said. They estimate a 13-billion pound feedstock deficit by 2024 as more processing capacity starts up. Sustainable aviation fuel production will further increase demand for renewable feedstock.


Though other, lower-carbon intensive feedstocks like tallow and used cooking oil are gaining traction because of government incentives, producers still rely mostly on corn and soybeal oil to make biofuels.


GRAPHIC: Renewable diesel output vs. gasoline and crude output

The Most Common Causes of Water hammer

The Most Common Causes of Water hammer lubchem

The Most Common Causes of Water hammer

It’s not uncommon to experience clanging pipes when a tap is turned off. This condition is called “water hammer”, or in technical plumbing terms “hydraulic shock”.

The bang you hear is a shockwave that results in pipes moving and striking each other or adjoining frames. The banging often gets worse if the pipes aren’t adequately supported or if the valves begin to wear out.

The trouble is that the noise isn’t just irritating. A water hammer is a key sign that damage may be occurring in your plumbing system. You must fix the cause of water hammer before it results in permanent damage. The Most Common Causes of Water hammer

To help you stop water hammer, we’ve put together this expert guide.

If you want to:

  • Diagnose what is causing your water hammer
  • Figure out how to get rid of water hammer

Or you want help knowing when to call a plumber about water hammer, then you’ll love this guide.

Let’s get started.

What Causes Water Hammer

Many of us have experienced banging pipes when a tap is turned off. This is usually caused by a mains pressure system which is at high pressure. The most common causes are:

Loose Pipes

If pipes are not secured correctly, then even the mildest shockwave can create loud bangs. Pipes must be fixed securely to a sturdy surface every couple of metres. Be aware that you may have hidden pipes that run under the floor or woodwork. Make sure to check for any loose straps, bolts or joists. The most common areas to find loose pipes are in the cellar or in an airing cupboard. Building work may also loosen water supply pipes increasing the effects of water hammer.

New Kitchen Appliances

If the banging started after installing a new washing machine or dishwasher, then it’s likely a problem with the solenoid valves. Dishwashers and washing machines have a water supply that is controlled by solenoid valves. These are electrically operated and they stop the flow of water immediately. When this happens, the water reflects back up the pipe and creates a shock wave that causes the bang.

Worn Stop Valves

The hammering may also be caused by worn stop valves. Stop valves can cause water hammer if they have loose gland packing and/or worn washers. The valves will generally be open when the water hammer shock wave travels through the pipework and the shockwave could well ‘rattle’ the valve handle and a loose jumper.

Clogged Air Chambers

If you’ve never had water hammer and one day you suddenly experience it out of the blue, then it’s likely your water system’s air chambers are blocked. These chambers often become blocked with water or residue from minerals found in water. The blockage will stop the chamber from absorbing the pressure in your system and, as a result, you will hear an occasional bang.

Water Ripples from the Tank

Another cause of hammering pipes is water ripples created by a float valve inside your water tank. When water flows into the tank, the valve float rocks up and down, constantly closing and opening the valve. This creates a “wave system” that echoes along the pipes, causing the hammering sound. Plastic water tanks can flex considerably, so they should have a reinforcing plate (metal) to stop them moving.

Fast-acting valves

A common cause of water hammer can be fast-acting valves on appliances such as washing machines or dishwashers. These valves suddenly stop the water that is moving along the pipes. A shockwave results and this causes the pipes to shudder, causing the banging. The banging gets worse as the valves are worn.

How to Stop Water Hammer

Water hammer isn’t just irritating – it can also go on to damage different components of your plumbing and pumping systems. That’s why it’s important to get rid of water hammer as soon as possible. A loose pipe or worn stop value could end up costing you thousands of pounds.

Secure Any Loose Pipes

If loose pipes are turning mild shock waves into loud bangs, you can prevent it by securing pipe straps, adding new pipe straps or tightening studs or joists.

Remember, do not mix different metals when securing pipes. A steel strap should not be used to secure a copper pipe or vice versa. Different metals can chemically react and cause corrosion of the metal.

If the problem pipes are located in hidden areas, then you will more than likely need a plumber to come out and help you find the issue.

Wrap Pipes in Foam Insulation

Another idea is to wrap pipes in foam insulation. The foam should help prevent banging by absorbing the shock waves. This can also help prevent pipes from freezing in the winter. Make sure to leave space for expansion around the pipe.

Fix Washing Machines or Dishwashers

If the banging only occurs when using the washing machine or dishwasher, then the problem is likely the solenoid valve. The solenoid valve is a component of your machine used to shut off the water supply. If the response time of the solenoid valve is too quick, then the fluid inside the valve is abruptly stopped. In this case, the fluid reflects like a wave causing a shock wave back up the pipe that you hear as a bang. The simple fix is to choose a solenoid valve or other valve type that has a slower response time.

Install a Water-Pressure Regulator

A common cause of water hammer is high water pressure. If your pressure is running near 100 psi, then it’s likely the cause of your issue. Normal pressure should be approximately 30 to 55 psi.

To solve this problem, consider installing a water pressure regulator. Installed near the mains water line, a pressure regulator monitors the moving water and controls the pressure of the water entering your home.

While water pressure regulators can be expensive, they are important as they help protect expensive water-dependent appliances such as dishwashers, washing machines and toilets.

Note: If you need to test your water pressure, you can buy a home water pressure testing gauge from most high-quality hardware stores.

Install an Air Chamber

Alternatively, if a pressure reducing valve or regulator is out of your budget, then an air chamber installed near problem valves could solve your problem.

This usually involves a qualified plumber working on-site to fabricate and then install a small vertical pipe near each of the problem valves.

In practice, when the water valves are shut off, the vertical pipes act as an air chamber, absorbing the air and preventing the bang.

The major problem with this method is that the pipe usually fills with water, stopping the chamber from working. You will then need to drain the system to fix the chamber.

Installing Mechanical Water Shock Arrestors

For a more sophisticated alternative to reducing water hammer, another option is to install “water hammer arrestors”.

Instead of installing a vertical pipe near valves to capture and absorb pressure, the arrestors use a mixture of springs and air bladders to absorb water movement and reduce shock waves.

While water arrestors will be more expensive than an air chamber, one thing to keep in mind is that you don’t have to worry about draining water from the chamber every couple of months.

Install a Grundfos UPS Circulator Pump

If your water hammer is caused by an ageing float valve or ripples in the water system, then UPS pumps could be the answer to your problem. Helping to ensure even circulation of liquids, the Grundfos circulating pump can adapt to different environments within the water system, reducing the chances of water hammer. You can also use the pump’s bleed system to remove trapped air from your water system. The Most Common Causes of Water hammer.

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Refiners shifting toward renewable diesel

Refiners are shifting toward renewable diesel (RD) for higher growth.  And better returns, according to analysis from Morgan Stanley. Refiners shifting toward renewable diesel

The prospect of higher growth and better returns through renewable diesel is attracting US refiners. With a growing focus on sustainability, Morgan Stanley expects carbon reduction efforts to drive incremental demand for renewable diesel, particularly commercial usage. Project economics are robust, with returns over 30-40%, supported by government subsidies. This is compelling given that typical refining and midstream opportunities offer lower returns and less growth potential. While a niche market that will likely be reliant on policy support for the foreseeable future, renewable diesel nonetheless offers an attractive opportunity, particularly for first movers.

Renewable diesel

Renewable diesel currently makes up around 0.5% of the 430 billion gals/year global diesel market. Through a bottom-up, state-by-state forecast, Morgan Stanley sees North American demand growing 140% from 1.0 billion gals/year in 2020 to 2.4 billion gals/year by 2025. Global consumption should more than double from 2.4 billion gals/year in 2020 to 5.3 billion gals/year in 2025.

“Our bull case sees global demand reaching 6.8 billion gals/year by 2025 through faster adoption. And early sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) penetration. Growth beyond stems from more decarbonization initiatives, Brazil pushing towards renewable diesel, and higher adoption of SAF by airlines. With a current and in-construction global capacity of 3.8 billion gals/year, there is room for more supply growth, but the word is getting out. Risks include capacity overbuild, the ability to secure sustainable feedstock, competition from imports and other low carbon alternatives, and changes in government policies,” said Morgan Stanley analysts.

current situation

While Neste is a first mover, US refiners are beginning to offer growing exposure, particularly Valero. Valero currently produces 275 million gals/year in gross renewable diesel and is in the process of doubling its capacity. Phillips 66 and HollyFrontier are constructing plants, while Marathon Petroleum, Delek US Holding, and PBF Energy are evaluating opportunities. Globally integrated oil companies are also venturing into biofuel and renewable fuels.


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Fire hits ONGC’s Hazira gas processing complex

Fire hits ONGC’s Gas processing complex

Fire hits: Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC) is in the process of resuming operations at its Hazira gas processing complex near Surat, Gujarat, following the plant’s shutdown in the wake of an early morning fire on Sept. 24.
The fire, which broke out shortly after 3:00 a.m. local time following a leak from a gas pipeline, was extinguished by 7:30 a.m., and all efforts are underway to restart plant operations as soon as possible, ONGC said. No injuries have been reported as a result of the incident, and the precise cause of the fire is now under investigation, according to the operator. ONGC disclosed no further details regarding the fire’s impact to equipment at the site, nor did it reveal an estimated timeline for when plant operations would resume. For More Information about Fire hits ONGC’s Gas processing complex please Contact US and Visit Us on Facebook for more

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